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The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the release of the Android beta in November 2007. The first commercial version, Android 1.0, was released in September 2008. Android is under ongoing development by Google and the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), and has seen a number of updates to its base operating system since its initial release.

Since April 2009, Android versions have been developed under a codename and released according to alphabetical order: Cupcake (1.5), Donut (1.6), Eclair (2.0–2.1), Froyo (2.2–2.2.3), Gingerbread (2.3–2.3.7), Honeycomb (3.0–3.2.6), Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0–4.0.4), Jelly Bean (4.1–4.3), and KitKat (4.4). On 3 September 2013, Google announced that 1 billion activated devices now use the Android OS worldwide.[1] The most recent major Android update was KitKat 4.4, which was released to commercial devices on 22 November 2013, via an OTA update.[2][3]

Pre-commercial release versions (2007–2008) Edit

Android alphaEdit

There were at least two internal releases inside Google and the OHA before the Android beta was released in November 2007. For internal milestone in internal releases, names of fictional robots were chosen, with various releases code-named "Astro Boy", "Bender" and "R2-D2".[4][5][6] Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok.[7] The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived of the confections naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 1.5.

Android betaEdit

The Android beta was released on 5 November 2007,[8][9] while the software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007.[10] The 5 November date is popularly celebrated as Android's "birthday".[11] Public beta versions of the SDK were released in the following order:

  • 16 November 2007: m3-rc22a[12]
  • 14 December 2007: m3-rc37a[13]
  • 13 February 2008: m5-rc14[14]
  • 3 March 2008: m5-rc15[15]
  • 18 August 2008: 0.9[16]
  • 23 September 2008: 1.0-r1[17]

Version history by API level Edit

The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android OS updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface (API) levels.

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Google announced Android 4.4 KitKat, internally known as Project Svelte,[121] on 3 September 2013.[122] The release had long been expected to be numbered 5.0 and called 'Key Lime Pie'.[123] KitKat debuted on Google's Nexus 5, and has been optimised to run on a greater range of devices, having 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum.[121]
Version Release date Features Image(s)
4.4 31 October 2013[124][125]
  • Refreshed interface with white elements instead of blue
  • Ability for applications to trigger translucency in the navigation and status bars[126]
  • Applications can now use "immersive mode" to keep the navigation and status bars hidden while maintaining user interaction[127]
  • Optimizations for performance on devices with lower specifications, including zRAM support and "low RAM" device API[121]
  • Wireless printing capability[121]
  • NFC host card emulation, enabling a device to replace smart cards[121]
  • WebViews now based on Chromium engine (feature parity with Chrome for Android 30)
  • Expanded functionality for notification listener services[121]
  • Public API for developing and managing text messaging clients.[128]
  • New framework for UI transitions
  • Storage access framework for retrieving content and documents from other sources
  • Sensor batching, step detector and counter APIs[121]
  • Settings application now makes it possible to select default text messaging and home (launcher) application
  • Audio tunneling, audio monitoring, loudness enhancer
  • Built-in screen recording feature (primarily for developers, usage of ADB is required)[129]
  • Native infrared blaster API
  • Expanded accessibility APIs and system-level closed captioning settings
  • New experimental runtime virtual machine, ART (not enabled by default)[130]
  • Bluetooth Message Access Profile (MAP) support[131]
  • Disabled access to battery statistics by third-party applications[132]
  • Settings application no longer uses a multi-pane layout on devices with larger screens
  • Wi-Fi and mobile data activity (TX/RX) indicators are moved to quick settings[133]
200px
Android 4.4 on the Nexus 4
4.4.1 5 December 2013[134]
  • Improvements to auto focus, white balance and HDR+ for the Nexus 5 camera[135][136]
  • Better application compatibility for the experimental ART runtime
  • The Camera application now loads Google+ Photos instead of Gallery when swiping away from the camera view
  • Miscellaneous improvements and bug fixes
4.4.2 9 December 2013[137]
  • Further security enhancements and bug fixes
  • Removal of the "App Ops" application permissions control system, introduced in Android 4.3[138]

Template:AnchorHardware requirements Edit

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Minimum hardware requirements have been upgraded in steps over time, with the new Android versions releases. Original minimums were 32 MB of RAM, 32 MB of Flash memory, and a 200 MHz ARM architecture (ARMv5) processor.[139][140]

As of version 4.0, a graphics processing unit (GPU) that supports OpenGL ES 2.0 hardware acceleration is mandatory,[141] regardless of applications directly using the OpenGL ES or not.

As of November 2013 and version 4.4, Android requires at least 512 MB of RAM and an ARMv7 processor.[121] MIPS and x86 architectures are also supported.[142] OpenGL ES 2.0 hardware acceleration is still mandatory, while OpenGL ES 3.0 is supported.[141]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  103. "Android 4.2 adds gestue typing, wireless TV display, multiple user support on tablets, and more". The Verge. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
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  106. "(Changelog) What's New In Android 4.2.1 (JOP40D)". Android Police. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  107. "Sorry, Santa – Google Cancels December In Android 4.2". Android Police. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  108. "Breaking: Android 4.2.2 (Build JDQ39) Update Rolling Out To GSM Galaxy Nexus, Nexus 7, Nexus 10". Android Police. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
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  114. "Another Android 4.3 Change: Photo Spheres Look A Lot Better Now". Android Police. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
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  116. "App Ops: Android 4.3's Hidden App Permission Manager, Control Permissions For Individual Apps!". Android Police. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  117. "Android 4.3 source code reveals support for 4K resolution". Engadget. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  118. "An In-Depth Look At The Big (And Small) Additions To Android Jelly Bean 4.3". Android Police. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  119. "Suddenly, A Wild Android 4.3.1 Appears - LTE Nexus 7 Receiving Android 4.3.1 OTA (JLS36I)". Android Police. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  120. "Factory Image And Binaries Are Now Available For The Nexus 7 LTE Android 4.3.1 Update (JLS36I)". Android Police. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
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  124. "Android for all and the new Nexus 5 ". Google Official Blog. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
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  132. Android Issue 61975: Undo removal of access to BATTERY_STATS permission for apps
  133. Android Issue 61834: 4.4 KitKat reception/Wifi indicators no longer show data rx/tx during operation
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External linksEdit

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