Automatic parking is an autonomous car maneuvering from a traffic lane into a parking place to perform parallel parking, perpendicular or angle parking. The automatic parking aims to enhance the comfort and safety of driving in constrained environments where much attention and experience is required to steer the car. The parking maneuver is achieved by means of coordinated control of the steering angle and speed which takes into account the actual situation in the environment to ensure collision-free motion within the available space.
The car is an example of a nonholonomic system where the number of control commands available is less than the number of coordinates that represents its position and orientation.
One of the first assistance systems for car parking used four jacks with wheels to raise the car and then move it sideways into the available parking space. This mechanical system was proposed in 1934, yet it was never offered on any production model.
One of the world-first experimental prototypes of automatic parallel parking was developed at INRIA on a Ligier electric car in the mid-1990s. It was extended to an automatic perpendicular parking in the early 2000s.
In 1992, Volkswagen proposed an automatic parking technology by four-wheel steering in its IRVW (Integrated Research Volkswagen) Futura concept car, allowing the driver to get off the car and watch the whole process of parallel parking. Yet no commercial version of this technology was ever offered.
In 2004, a group of Linköping University students in Sweden with Volvo developed a project called Evolve. Evolve car can automatically cis-row parking. These students installed inductor on the sensor and carputer in the trunk to control steering and acceleration and brake pedals computer with the Volvo S60.
How it works Edit
Automatic parking system is using various different methods to detect objects around the vehicle. Some of the sensors installed on the front and rear bumpers, they can act as both a transmitter and a receiver. These sensors send a signal, and the signal will be reflected back when it encounters an obstacle around the vehicle. Then, the carputer will use the time signal it receives to determine the position of the obstacle. Other systems use mounted on the bumper of the camera or radar to detect obstacles. But the result is the same: the car will detect the vehicle has been parked, parking space size and distance with the roadside, and then lead the car into the parking space.
In 2006, Lexus added a self parking system to the redesigned Lexus LS sedan it parallel parks as well as parks back-in perpendicular.
In 2009, Ford introduced their Active Park Assist beginning with their Lincoln models it works in parallel parking.
In 2010 BMW introduced a system called Parking Assistant on the redesigned 5-series it works in parallel parking.
Up to 2012, automatic parking systems are being developed by several automobile manufacturers.Ford and Lincoln offer active park assist on Ford Focus, Fusion, Escape, Explorer and Flex and Lincoln MKS and MKT. Toyota and Lexus have advanced parking assistant on Toyota Prius V Five and Lexus LS460 and LS460 L. BMW all-new sixth-generation 3 Series are using a system called parking assistant. Audi A6, Mercedes-Benz also offer parktronic on their C-Class, CLS-Class Coupe, M-Class SUV, E-Class, S-Class, GL350, GL450 SUV (standard on GL550) and R-Class in different prices.
- ↑ Paromtchik, Igor; Laugier, Christian (1996). "Autonomous Parallel Parking of a Nonholonomic Vehicle", Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Tokyo, Japan, September 1996, pp. 13-18.
- ↑ "Four Wheels On Jacks Park Car", Popular Science, September 1934.
- ↑ Paromtchik, Igor; Laugier, Christian (1998). "Automatic Parallel Parking and Returning to Traffic", Video Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Belgium, May 1998.
- ↑ Paromtchik, Igor (2003). "Planning Control Commands to Assist in Car Maneuvers", Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Coimbra, Portugal, June-July 2003, pp. 1308-1313.
- ↑ Paromtchik, Igor (2003). "Planning Control Commands to Assist in Car Maneuvers", Video presented at the 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Coimbra, Portugal, June-July 2003.
- ↑ Pauline Abreu, How Self Parking Cars Work, April 2008.
- ↑ YouTube video 2004.
- ↑ How Self-Parking Car Work, Ed Grabianowski, page 2.
- ↑ Toyota unveils car that parks itself, September 2003.
- ↑ 2012 Family Cars With Self-Parking Technology, SUZANNE KANE, October 2011.
See also Edit
- Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
- Autonomous car
- Backup collision
- Backup camera
- Blind spot monitor
- Blind spot (vehicle)
- Car safety
- Dry steering
- Intelligent Parking Assist System
- Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV)
- Intelligent car
- Lane departure warning system
- Laser rangefinder
- Objects in mirror are closer than they appear
- Parking sensors
- Precrash system
- Rear-view mirror
- Side-view mirror
- Wing mirror