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For other meanings of Jurong, see Jurong (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox Singapore neighbourhood

Jurong is a planned district located in the southwestern part of Singapore. Its main composition consists of Jurong East, Jurong West and Jurong Industrial. Its territory is also extended to include Pulau Samulun and Jurong Island.

Since the 1950s, Jurong has remained the heart of Singapore's heavy industry. Being a far cry away from the brick and mortar businesses of the island nation's Downtown Core. The Jurong Industrial Estate along with the residential developments of Jurong East and West, was one of the earliest prototypes of a satellite town in Singapore. Such a concept allowed residents of said towns to work, live and play in small planned communities away from the main metropolitan districts of the Central Area.

Today, the rapid growth and development of Jurong has lead it to become one of the most densely populated places in the city state. With an estimated population of over 357,000 people.[1] Jurong's planning structure and model has become the basis of many new towns in Singapore, such as those of Pasir Ris and Woodlands.

EtymologyEdit

"Jurong" took its name from the Sungei Jurong, a body of water that still channels into Jurong Lake, the latter of which was created by damming the river itself. Although its origins are disputed, the core definition of "Jurong", is probably derived from several meanings in Malay. The term could probably refer to the word for shark, "Jerung". It can also be derived from the word "Jurang" or a gorge. Jurong could also take its name from the word, "Penjuru" which translates to, corner. Penjuru may most likely refer to the area that sits between Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan, Tanjong Penjuru or Cape Corner in English. The present-day site of Tanjong Penjuru would be the sub-zone of Penjuru Crescent.[2]

Many roads within the Jurong Industrial Estate named in the late 1960s and early 1970s drew inspiration from the nature of industrial activities in the estate and related aspects of industrialisation. Following the growth of the rubber industry in the early 1900s, numerous rubber plantations dominated the area. Plantations such as Bulim Estate, Lokyang Estate, Chong Keng Estate, Seng Toh Estate and Yunnan Estate, eventually gave rise to many of the local names for areas in Jurong.

HistoryEdit

Before Raffles (c. 1600 – 1819)Edit

The earliest known records of Jurong can be traced back to 1595 on a maritime documentation of oriental trading routes. Titled "Reys-gheschrift van de Navigation der Portugaloysers in Orienten", the journal written by Dutch author Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, names a certain "Selat Sembilan" that one must cross eastwards after reaching the southernmost end of the Strait of Malacca.[3] This suggests that the straits near Jurong witnessed a significant role in the ancient maritime Silk Road. Although not mapped by Linschoten, the location of Selat Sembilan was later identified in Philip Jackson's 1828 survey of Singapore. Despite much land-reclamation works along most coastal parts of Jurong and Tuas, Selat Sembilan still exists today as Selat Jurong, stretching along the entire coastline of the region.[2]

Even before the arrival of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819, small settlements had already been built along Jurong's coastal areas as well as the present-day site of Jurong Island, Pulau Damar Laut and Pulau Sembulan. Such squatters were inhabited by the native Orang laut, some of whom migrated from the nearby Dutch East Indies and Malaya.

Colonial era (1819 to 1942)Edit

Earliest developmentsEdit

Post-colonization, Jurong had a small population of inhabitants scattered along the banks of the area's two main rivers, Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan. It mainly accompased of a large Chinese and Malay migrant population.

The majority of the Chinese population was Hokkien-speaking, immigrating from Anxi County in the province of Fujian, China. A Teochew demographic was also prevalent in Jurong. Originating from the City of Jieyang, the Teochew-speaking population mainly settled along the westernmost portions of Jurong.[2]

Most of the Malays and Orang Laut in the area were natives of the land, settling in squatters and villages located along the coast of Jurong long before the founding of Singapore as a British colony in 1819. There were also other ethnic Malay groups that came down from the rest of the Malay Archipelago who migrated from various parts of present-day Malaysia and Indonesia. However, the exact statistics concerning foreign Malays settling in Jurong after 1819 is not clear.

In a visit to the area in 1848, the then-Chief Surveyor of Singapore, John Turnbull Thomson, made one of the earliest accounts regarding human settlements in Jurong.

He described the demographics along Sungei Jurong as such:

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Thomson also gave his description on the population along Sungei Pandan:

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With the increase in population size over the years, the need for a mode of travel to and from the Town of Singapore, was necessary. Between 1852 and 1853, the first few portions of Jurong Road were paved to connect villages around Jurong to the metropolitan areas of Singapore Town and the rest of the island. This first portion of Jurong Road started from the seventh milestone of Bukit Timah Road ending along the head of Sungei Jurong. Although it isn't known when the rest of the road was paved, by 1936, the road stretched up to the district of Tuas.[2]

An American expeditionEdit
File:River Jurong, Singapore (c 1856) by Peter Berhard Wilhelm Heine and Eliphalet M Brown.jpg

In 1853, US Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry led a maritime expedition to Japan in an attempt to open up the country (then under self-imposed isolation) to the world for trade and the possible building of political and economic ties.

The fleet of the Perry Expedition stopped over at a few countries before reaching the Japanese archipelago. Amongst one of the few docking locations during the trip was Singapore. This made it the second time that the United States had made a diplomatic presence on the island since the Exploring Expedition.

Perry's crew anchored their fleet of two frigates and two sloops-of-war along Selat Sembilan and Sungei Jurong, where they surveyed the surroundings of the strait and the river.

Wilhelm Heine and Eliphalet Brown, two of the official expedition's artists, were tasked at producing a lithograph depicting the villages along Sungei Jurong. The resulting image was one of the earliest illustrations of colonial-era Jurong.

The interesting point of the image is the scene of a forest fire shown in the background. This was common at the time as such raging wildfires were often rampant and common throughout most of Jurong in the mid-19th century.[2] Another point worthy of note in the image is the United States flag seen affixed on the stern of the sampan in the foreground.[4]

Earliest industriesEdit

Agriculture and aquacultureEdit

Before the early 1960s, small and large plantations alike dominated the area, which produced and harvested crops such as pineapple, pepper, gambier and nutmeg, thus providing key sources of income for the people of the district. However, in the early period of time, the main produce for export by the plantations of Jurong was gambier. Gambier's practical uses and medicinal properties made the plant-crop significantly valuable and gambier plantations proved to become profitable for the Chinese kangchu-owners situated in the area, the local communities and other local and foreign plantation owners. In 1855, the Municipal Committee of the British colonial government reported that there were 20 of such legally-recognised gambier plantations existing within Jurong. However, this figure is not entirely accurate given the fact that many illegal ones were also set up in the area.[2]

Rubber was also a popular agricultural industry in Jurong at that time and was regarded as a strong competitor to the gambier plantation businesses and firms that were flourishing and expanding in the district. By the first half of the 20th century, the practices of rubber-tapping and the setting up of rubber plantations overtook the role of planting and harvesting gambier, an agricultural activity that once thrived in Jurong. A notable example of a business dealing in gambier that shifted to the rubber-plantation sector was the plantation firm that belonged to Chinese business-magnate Chew Boon Lay. The large amount of land that his plantation stood on was often well-associated with his name. Today, this area is known as Boon Lay Place and is a small subzone that is enclaved within the new town of Jurong West.

Aside from the profitable reliance on cash-crops and large plantations, fishing was also another prominent form of income for the locals staying in Jurong, although this job aspect was mostly handled and dealt with by the local Malay and Orang Laut population, most of whom chose to live along the coastlines of Jurong or had already settled there for many generations. Fishing was also conducted along the two of the more prominent rivers of Jurong at Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan respectively.

Numerous prawn farms were also set up along these two rivers where such crustacean species naturally thrived. By the 1950s, 500 acres of land in Jurong was specifically designated for prawn-farming in Jurong. This was roughly half of the total amount of land used for prawn farms located all over Singapore at that time.[2]

Manufacturing and processingEdit

For some time before the period of rapid industrialisation occurring in Jurong throughout the 1960s, Jurong was already a host to several businesses in the heavy industry (primarily dealing with construction and manufacturing), most notably, the brickwork industrial sector. Local businesses involving in brick manufacturing and earthenware production were largely set up around Yunnan in Jurong West, where the soil conditions there could yield much clay and terracotta. Although almost all of these factories and industries closed down over the years (most were shut down by the late 1990s and early 2000s), the brickwork industry still continues to remain strong (primarily in the form of its past and its legacy) in Jurong even to this day.

The earliest brick factories in Jurong emerged in the 1920s and exported large quantities of the building material to construction sites around Singapore as well as to Malaya (now Malaysia), with a notable brick factory in the area being the Jurong Brickworks. First set up in the 1930s,[5] Jurong Brickworks was one of the largest privately owned brick manufacturers and suppliers in Singapore. During the company's heyday and booming peak all throughout the 1970s, it manufactured more than three million bricks every month. Jurong Brickworks was eventually shut down in 2005 for the construction of Jurong North New Town and Tengah New Town and the entire manufacturing plant was demolished in that same year as well. The Jurong Brickworks was also fond that it was similar to Timothy Village's Brickworks, which was also demolished in 2005 together with the kampong and the community club.

Another notable earthenware-production business located in Jurong is the Thow Kwang Dragon Kiln. Set up by Chinese immigrants in the 1940s, this pottery manufacturer, along with its neighbouring counterpart, the Jalan Bahar Clay Studios, continues to exist to this day and remain as the only possessor of a pair of dragon kilns in Singapore. Although located in an area that is traditionally a part of Jurong, the kilns are technically located next to Nanyang Technological University, which is situated in the Western Water Catchment.[2]

Similar business venturesEdit

Aside from his plantation, Chew Boon Lay also owned one of the earliest factories (a manufacturing plant) that was located in Jurong. During its time in business-operation from 1950 to 1958, the manufacturing plant produced a wide range of canned goods (foodstuff) that ranged from kaya to curry and even peanut butter. It was located along Jalan Ahmad Ibrahim and was opposite from the location of where Jurong Bird Park is located at now. This same building was also a temporary location for the management offices of the Jurong Town Corporation in 1968.[2]

Second World War (1941–45)Edit

101 Special Training SchoolEdit

File:Pulau Damar Laut, panorama, Nov 06.jpg

Following the invasion of Thailand in the beginning of December in 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army was rapidly heading southwards down the Malay Peninsula towards Singapore. It was rather obvious, by then, to many that a Japanese military assault on the island was nearly imminent. In light of the oncoming threat, the Oriental Mission of the UK's Special Operations Executive chose to set up a training institution/school in Singapore to assist and train members of possible anti-Japanese resistance movements throughout Japanese-occupied British Malaya and, later, Singapore.

One proposed site for the training base was at Pulau Ubin. However, the suggestion was dropped for a number of reasons. Issues such as the difficulty of clearing thick jungle foliage, the cost of building and developing the training base's site, the lack of access to freshwater and the risk of contagious malaria and other diseases made Pulau Ubin unsuitable for a possible location.

File:Singapore map 1942.jpg

The SOE eventually settled on a small and isolated island known as Tanjong Balai. Located at the mouth of Sungei Jurong, the island was where a single man-made structure, consisting of a lone bungalow that was once owned by Jewish businessman Joseph Brook David, was located. Apart from the bungalow, the island was also well-hidden amongst the canopy of secondary-type rainforest and what was even better was the convenience of accessing the location either by a boat or by a well-hidden path in the jungle.

With the SOE's settling down at Tanjong Balai, the Number 101 Special Training School was created and mainly trained its personnel in the various fields of sabotage, reconnaissance and espionage to prepare them for resistance efforts against Japanese occupation forces.

With the invading Japanese military pushing into Singapore by February in 1942, the training base was quickly closed down with the destruction of related documents and the abandonment of the training base Tanjong Balai. A new SOE training base was later established in Burma in the former capital city of Myanmar at Rangoon.

Today, the island of Tanjong Balai and the training base located there is largely unheard-of by many modern-day Singaporeans. The island has since been subsumed by Jurong Port after further land-reclamation works were carried out in the 1980s to expand the harbour.[2]

Modern history (1960–present)Edit

The need to industrialiseEdit

Post-war Singapore was plagued with much economic and financial trouble. A largely-uneducated population and the then-chronic lack of jobs meant that the amount of available manpower in the country was quite scarce. By the end of the decade of the 1950s, the total unemployment rate in post-war Singapore stood at about 14%, which encompassed an estimated 200,000 people out of the whole population at that time. To add on to the problems of widespread unemployment and the subsequent general poverty of the people that followed, the government had to tackle the issue of the then-high birth-rate in the country, which increased every year by around 4%.[2]

With the Cold War already present and the then-constant threat of communism spreading from Malaya, the country's Legislative Assembly was being pressured to keep the British-ruled crown colony financially stable and economically strong.

In 1959, the People's Action Party emerged victorious in the first general election held in a self-governing Singapore. A crucial element of the party's agenda shortly after coming to power was the promise of more and better employment opportunities and jobs for the people and the need to build up and strengthen the weak economy of a newly-developing self-governing nation.[6] Thus, the new PAP-led government had a desperate and urgent need to resolve the issue of Singapore's weak economy and Dr Goh Keng Swee, then the finance minister of Singapore, was quickly put in charge of this challenging task.

Dr Goh determined that the only way to improve and strengthen Singapore's weak economy was through industrialisation. He envisioned a major industrial town in Singapore that would have modern industries mainly based in the manufacturing sector, such as shipyards, steelworks, chemical plants and other factories. Although such an idea was not the first of its kind, Dr Goh's plans for an industrial estate in Jurong were much more ambitious and wider-reaching than other previously-made proposals.[2]

Jurong Industrial EstateEdit

On the 4th of July in 1960, the Legislative Assembly of Singapore announced a proposal to construct a new industrial town in Jurong.[7] The entire project, which totalled $45.7 million in cost, begun almost immediately after the proposal's announcement, with the immediate processes of planning and designing taking place in August in that same year.[8]

For Jurong's industrialisation, with Singapore's request for assistance with regard to economic development, the United Nations Industrial Survey Mission designated Dutch economic/financial advisor Dr Albert Winsemius to take charge of the project for the economic development of Singapore. The same UN mission also deployed Frenchman Mr P. Schereschewsky to survey Jurong's suitability for an industrial town.[8]

In 1961, the Economic and Development Board (the EDB) was formed to spearhead Singapore's industrialisation and earthworks for the construction and development of Jurong's industrial estate began in that same year. A year later, in 1962, the then-finance minister of Singapore, Dr Goh Keng Swee, helped to lay and set the foundation stone for the newly established National Iron and Steel Mills, the first factory in the new industrial estate (the factory has since been renamed to become NatSteel and the company is now a subsidiary of Tata Steel of India).[9] At that time, many Singaporeans doubted the chances of success concerning Dr Goh's ambitious plan to develop the area for industrialisation and gave it the unflattering nickname of "Goh's Folly". They were quickly proven wrong, however, as 24 factories (of various types) were soon established in 1963. In May 1965, Jurong Port became operational.

In 1968, the Jurong Town Corporation was created to direct and manage of Jurong's development. By this time, a total of 14.78 square-kilometres of industrial land had been prepared with 153 factories fully functioning and being up-and-running and 46 more being constructed and set up. With Singapore's economy constantly growing and developing ever more rapidly, finding more space for newer businesses and industries in the future is an ever-present and constant challenge. Seven islets off the southern coast of Jurong were merged to create the 30 square-kilometre Jurong Island, which is where most of the oil, chemical and petrochemical factories, manufacturing industries and plants in Singapore are located at. The construction and development of Jurong Island began in the early part of the 1990s and is scheduled to be completed by 2010 (as of 2016, much of the development works have been completed, with some newer developments about to commence or are still ongoing). A number of heavy-type industrial companies and firms, such as DuPont and Teijin Polycarbonate, amongst others, began their business operations there in the later part of the 1990s. The Jurong Island Causeway provides the only land-based link to Jurong Island from mainland Singapore. All forms of access to the island is heavily restricted ever since the September 11 attacks in 2001. An entry/exit security pass is required for all employees working at Jurong Island and cameras and all other recording equipment are banned from being transported into the island.

Townships of JurongEdit

Main article: Jurong East
File:BoonLayPlace.JPG

The first few low-rise flats in Jurong Town emerged in the precinct of Taman Jurong between 1963 and 1964, developed by the Housing and Development Board. Around this time, other notable housing estates, such as Boon Lay, began breaking ground as well. Despite the new residential developments, Jurong lacked a growing population. Reasons were largely due to the location of Jurong and the lack of infrastructure around the region at the time.

The development of Jurong East and West started in the 1979 when estates such as Taman Jurong, Boon Lay Place, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak, Hong Kah, Teban Gardens and Yuhua were built, mostly due to the resettlement of Hong Kah and surrounding villages. Boon Lay Place, Taman Jurong and Hong Kah formed Jurong West New Town. Yuhua, Teban Gardens, Bukit Batok and Bukit Gombak formed Jurong East New Town.

File:Je-town.JPG

In 1982, Jurong West New Town started expanding as Jurong West Extension, which saw the realignment of the PIE to make it go through the southern boundary of present-day NTU, while converting the former section into Jurong West Avenue 2 and renaming the original Upper Jurong Road into Jurong West Avenue 4. Pioneer Road was extended North wards from present-day Upper Jurong Road as Pioneer Road North to the new PIE exit, which signalled the start of the development of Jurong West Extension (Yunnan, Pioneer and Gek Poh).[10] The N9 estate was the first to be built and the N6 estate was the last, in the early 2000s. The MRT Line was extended from Lakeside to Boon Lay in 1990 and again to Pioneer in 2009.

Spyros disasterEdit

Main article: Spyros disaster

On 12 October in 1978, a Greek oil tanker, Spyros, exploded at Jurong Shipyard, killing more than 70 people in the immediate vicinity. The result was one of the worst man-made disasters/calamities since the Second World War in Singapore and the worst industrial accident since the country gained full independence in 1965.


GeographyEdit

Pre-industrial JurongEdit

Natural geographyEdit

File:Plan of the British settlement of Singapore published 1828.jpg

Although Jurong's geography was documented on a few maps and records following Singapore's founding in 1819, the area only became clearer to the British in an 1828 geographical survey of the island by Lieutenant Philip Jackson. In a map that was drawn after the survey, the lieutenant clearly describes most of Jurong's natural geography with the two rivers of Jurong, Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan marked on the map. He also noted down several islands which have since ceased to exist. Such islands include, Pulau Ayer Chawan, Pulau Butun, Pulau Pese (Pulau Pesek), Pulau Sakra, Pulau Saraya (Pulau Seraya) all of which have since merged to form Jurong Island. Current geographical landmarks such as Pulau Damar Laut and the strait of Selat Sembilan have also been included on the map.[2]

The two rivers of Jurong were mentioned again in 1848, when a second survey conducted by John Turnbull Thomson, described the original shape and settlements of Sungei Jurong and Sungei Pandan. Turnbull describes both rivers as, "large creeks" with settlements around the both.

However, in the case of Sungei Jurong, Thomson gives his description as such:

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—{{{2}}}

Before the damming of Sungei Jurong, the present-day site of Jurong Lake was once occupied by two streams that split at the junction of the river. These two streams have since ceased to exist. However, like what Thomson said, these bodies of water roughly marked the present day locations of Jurong East and West, at that time identified as Jurong and Peng Kang on colonial maps respectively.[2]

Before its development in the 1960s, Jurong was left close to its pristine state after Singapore's founding in 1819. Although there were a few settlements around Jurong, most of the land was mainly uncharted territory. Swamps dominated the coastline of Jurong, yielding large amounts of wildlife such as mudskippers and horseshoe crabs. A forest reserve of dipterocarp trees would have once stood inland behind the grove of rhizophora trees along the coast. Low hills were mainly the highest elevated points around Jurong, although most of them were later leveled over the years.

This was evident, given the description made by Commodore Perry in his accounts of Jurong made during the Perry Expedition:

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—{{{2}}}

Administrative geographyEdit

In maps made by the British administration before Singapore's self-governance in 1959, Colonial Jurong's territory was rather small, occupying what is today the present-day district of Bukit Batok. However, as the boundaries of Jurong were never made clear by surveyors at that time, many residents have often regarded the areas along the stretch of Jurong Road as part of the region itself. Such areas include Peng Kang, colonial Choa Chu Kang, colonial Pandan and colonial Tuas.[2]

Modern JurongEdit

Natural geographyEdit

File:Sungei Ulu Pandan.JPG

Today, most of what is left of the original pristine Jurong is restricted to the areas around the Pandan Reservoir and Sungei Pandan. Little traces of the dipterocarp forest still remain. The mangrove swamps today are now just a fraction of its former self, located at the mouth of Sungei Pandan. The untouched mangrove fringes still hold the last remnants of wildlife in Jurong. It is because of this that area remains a hotspot for bird watching and nature enthusiast to this day.[2]

Jurong's unique locale lends to itself a special rock formation unlike any other in Singapore. Named the Jurong Formation, the sedimentary rock deposits can trace its roots back to the late Triassic and early to middle Jurassic periods.

Administrative geographyEdit

Although modified several times throughout its modern history, Jurong's borders post-industrialization have remained relatively the same since the 1960s.

The boundaries of modern-day Jurong were finally defined in the 1960 proposal of the new town. The planned district would be located entirely south of Jurong Road, combining land that was once the colonial era districts of Jurong, Peng Kang, Pandan and the southernmost portion of Choa Chu Kang.[11] As a result of this proposal, the government gazetted portions of land from these areas to increase the overall size of Jurong.[12]

Some land portions however, have since been seceded to other districts. The northern portions of Colonial Jurong would eventually become the district of Bukit Batok. The district of Tuas eventually became its own separate entity after going through numerous changes under the planning schemes of the Urban Redevelopment Authority. Pandan today is a small sub-zone that has since been seceded to the district of Clementi. It covers the eastern area of the mouth of Sungei Pandan.

Through numerous changes made to the planning areas over the decades, the borders of Jurong today are marked by a number of roads and expressways.

With the decommissioning of Jurong Road following the completion of the Pan Island Expressway in 1992, the northern limits of the district were changed. Today, the stretch of the PIE that runs adjacent to the northern portions of Jurong, separates it from the districts of Tengah in the north-west and Bukit Batok to the immediate north.

Everything south of Jurong is the coastline facing three of the district's islands, Jurong Island, Pulau Damar Laut and Pulau Samulun. Although these islands fall under the composition of the district, Jurong Island is technically classified by the URA under the Western Islands Planning Area.

The eastern border of Jurong that is shared with Clementi mostly runs along Sungei Pandan. At its northern tip, the eastern border cuts through a portion of the PIE merging with the northern border that separates Jurong from Bukit Batok.

Towards the westernmost point of Jurong, the border with the industrial district of Tuas runs along Tuas Road before cutting into the uppermost portion of Pioneer Road and eventually ending at the Tuas Basin.[13]

Within the district itself, Jurong is further split into four contiguous parts. Jurong East and West in the north and north-west form the main bulk of the residential district. Boon Lay and Pioneer to the south and south-west form the Jurong Industrial Estate.


PoliticsEdit

Jurong was used to be an independent constituency in the 1959 general elections. Chia Thye Poh, represented the constituency between 1963 and 1966. Boon Lay SMC was later carved in 1976 during the building of HDB flats at Boon Lay, and later Hong Kah SMC was carved in 1984, together with Yuhua SMC. Ayer Rajah SMC was redrawn for the Teban Gardens side.

Hong Kah SMC was grown to become a GRC that consisted of Nanyang, Hong Kah, Gek Poh Ville and Bukit Batok from 1988 to 1997. The Taman Jurong, Neighbourhood 9 and Pioneer were under Jurong SMC. Yuhua is under Yuhua SMC.

In 2001, there were major changes to the constituencies in Jurong. Boon Lay constituency, together with Teban Gardens and Pioneer were absorbed into the expanded West Coast GRC. One of the places affected is Daisy Ang's house, which was moved to Jurong GRC (Jurong Central). Bert Koh's house is still located at Jurong GRC (Yuhua), formerly known as Bukit Timah GRC. Jurong constituency was abolished. Hong Kah and Bukit Batok were absorbed into the newly formed Jurong GRC, along with Yuhua and Taman Jurong. As such, the entire political system was changed with 3 GRCs as a result.

Hong Kah GRC only remains for the existing portion of Nanyang and Bulim from 2001 to 2011. It was extended to include Bukit Gombak and the Keat Hong area.

In 2011, the constituencies such as Hong Kah North, Yuhua and Pioneer were later split, mainly for the Pioneer side, Er Hui Jun wanted to bring the reputation down. Nonetheless, among the 6 constituencies in Jurong, they will never go to the opposition.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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SourcesEdit

External linksEdit

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