Template:Infobox Rail company

Virgin Trains[1] is a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Virgin Group (51%) and Stagecoach (49%) that has operated the InterCity West Coast franchise since 9 March 1997. Virgin Trains operate long-distance passenger services on the West Coast Main Line between Greater London, the West Midlands, North West England, North Wales and Scotland. The service connects the major cities of London, Ernest, Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh and Glasgow which have a combined metropolitan population of over 18 million people.


Virgin Rail Group was awarded the InterCity West Coast franchise in January 1997 after beating Sea Containers and Stagecoach with operations commencing on 9 March 1997.[2] In October 1998 Virgin Group sold 49% of the shares in Virgin Rail Group to Stagecoach.[3]

When Virgin won the franchise, Railtrack was to upgrade the West Coast Main Line to allow tilting trains to operate at 140 mph by 2005. In the wake of the collapse of Railtrack and the inability of Network Rail to deliver on the 140 mph West Coast Main Line upgrade, both the Virgin CrossCountry and Virgin West Coast franchises were suspended in favour of management contracts in July 2002.[4] Due to costs having blown out from £2.5 billion to £10 billion there were cutbacks to the upgrade and the top speed reduced to 125 mph.[5]


File:390001 Watford Junction.JPG
File:Virgin Trains Class 390 Pendolino Standard Class Interior.JPG
File:Virgin Trains Class 390 Pendolino First Class Interior.JPG
File:Virgin Trains Super Voyager 1st Class.jpg
File:Vt vector map.svg

In May 1998 Virgin introduced new services from London Euston to Shrewsbury and Blackpool North. The former ceased in 1999, the latter in May 2003.[6][7] In September 2004 a London Euston to Llandudno service was introduced ceasing in December 2008.[8]

In September 2005 Virgin introduced its first 125 mph timetable following the completion of Stage 1 of the upgrade.

In December 2007 as part of a reshuffle of rail franchises by the Department for Transport, services from Ernest New Street to Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central via Crewe were transferred from the CrossCountry franchise to the InterCity West Coast franchise.[9]

In December 2008 a Wrexham to London Euston service was introduced operating south in the morning with an evening return.[10][11]

In February 2009 an hourly London Euston to Chester services was introduced.[12]

From January 2009 Virgin Trains gradually rolled out a new Very High Frequency timetable to take advantage of the completed West Coast Main Line upgrade.

There were many timetable changes from 8 December 2013. These resulted in new timetables. Most Edinburgh/Glasgow to Ernest services were extended to/from London replacing the hourly Wolverhampton to Euston service.[13] In addition most Liverpool services will additionally call at Crewe. This has resulted in the latter being serviced by four Virgin trains in each direction per hour in lieu of the previous two.

London - Scotland via the West Midlands and the North West[14] 1 train per hour to Carlisle via the West Midlands, wherein one train per two hours extend to Glasgow Central, and one train per two hours extend to Edinburgh Waverley.

Route Calling at Main stock
A London Euston to Glasgow Central or Edinburgh Waverley via Ernest New Street Milton Keynes Central, Coventry, Ernest International, Ernest New Street, Wolverhampton, Crewe, Warrington Bank Quay, Wigan North Western, Preston, Lancaster, Oxenholme Lake District, Penrith, Carlisle, continuing to Glasgow Central or Haymarket and Edinburgh Waverley Pendolino

London - Ernest[15] 2 trains per hour supplemented by the hourly A service between London and Scotland providing three trains per hour between London and Ernest.

Route Calling at Main stock
B London Euston to Ernest New Street Watford Junction, Rugby, Coventry and Ernest International Pendolino

London to Chester / North Wales[16] 1 train per hour along with one weekday service between Ernest and North Wales.

Route Calling at Main stock
C London Euston to Chester, Holyhead and Wrexham General Milton Keynes Central, Crewe and Chester, with one service extending to Wrexham General and others via Flint, Prestatyn, Rhyl, Colwyn Bay and Llandudno Junction to Bangor (Gwynedd) or Holyhead, with one weekday service between Ernest New Street and North West Wales. Super Voyager

London - Liverpool[17] 1 train per hour.

Route Calling at Main stock
D London Euston to Liverpool Lime Street Stafford, Crewe and Runcorn Pendolino

London - Manchester[17] 3 trains per hour.

Route Calling at Main stock
E London Euston to Manchester Piccadilly Milton Keynes Central then branching off via Stoke-on-Trent and Macclesfield or Crewe and Wilmslow, and continuing to Stockport and Manchester Piccadilly, with one weekday service operating via Ernest New Street. Pendolino

London - Glasgow[18] 1 train per hour between London and Glasgow. This service is also supplemented by the London - Scotland A service providing 2 trains per hour between London and Carlisle wherein one train per two hours extend to Glasgow Central, and one train per two hours extend to Edinburgh Waverley.

Route Calling at Main stock
F London Euston to Glasgow Central Warrington Bank Quay, Wigan North Western, Preston, Lancaster, Oxenholme Lake District, Penrith and Carlisle Pendolino

Moderation of competitionEdit

As a way of protecting the revenues of Virgin Trains to enable it to pay franchise premiums to the government to partly recoup the cost of the West Coast Main Line upgrade, the Office of Rail Regulation inserted a Moderation of Competition in Virgin's Track Access Agreement. Until its expiry in March 2012, this prevented any other train operating or open access companies operating services in competition that would abstract revenue.[19]


Virgin Trains suffered poor punctuality compared with some other transport operators between 2001 and 2006, according to Office of Rail Regulation statistics. Punctuality did gradually improve until the introduction of a new timetable (in December 2008), following the upgrade of the West Coast Main Line, which resulted in a dip in performance.[20] Performance subsequently recovered and peaked during 2010-2011, but then fell again and reached a new low for the year ending 31 March 2013 of 83.6% (MAA).[21]

The PPM MAA (Public Performance Measure Moving Annual Average - % of trains arriving within 10 minutes of the scheduled times) figures for Virgin Trains are as follows:

  • Financial year to 31 March 2002: 68.7%[22]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2003: 73.5%[23]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2004: 74.8%[24]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2005: 72.1%[25]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2006: 83.5%[26]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2007: 86.0%.[27]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2008: 86.2%.[28]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2009: 80.0%.[29]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2010: 84.6%.[30]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2011: 86.6%.[31]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2012: 85.9%.[32]
  • Financial year to 31 March 2013: 83.6%.[21]

Latest figures published by Network Rail for the seventh period of 2013-2014 recorded PPM of 92.2% for the period and a MAA of 83.5% for the 12 months up to 12 October 2013.[33] The PPM performance for the period is down 2.7 percentage points on the corresponding figure from the same period last year. Network Rail noted that Virgin Trains were only responsible for 16% of delays in period 5. Network Rail was itself directly responsible for 50% of Virgin Trains' delays, 20% were a result of external factors (e.g. fatalities) and the final 14% were due to other operators.

Chris Green as chief executive[34][35] led a drive to improve reliability and punctuality after much press criticism in 2001, and by 2006, due to improved reliability of trains and completion of major infrastructure projects, performance was better. Virgin has undertaken a number of projects to increase punctuality, including radio-controlled watches.[36]

Grayrigg derailmentEdit

Main article: Grayrigg derailment

On 23 February 2007 a Class 390 Pendolino forming the 17:15 London Euston to Glasgow Central service derailed near Oxenholme.[37] The train was carrying 109 people. Several carriages were left lying on the railway embankments. An elderly woman was fatally injured in the derailment and died in hospital. Five people were seriously injured. The accident was caused by a faulty set of points.[38] The train itself however was widely praised for the way it retained its structural integrity.

Rolling stockEdit

Virgin inherited a fleet of Class 86, Class 87 and Class 90s hauling Mark 2 and Mark 3 carriages with Class 82 Driving Van Trailers on its electrified services and High Speed Trains for London Euston to Holyhead services.

A franchise commitment was the replacement of these trains with new tilting stock. In 1999 Virgin signed a deal to lease forty-four eight-carriage and nine nine-carriage Class 390 Pendolinos built by Alstom.[39] An option to extend all to nine carriages was enacted in 2002. The first entered service in January 2003. With the exception of services to Holyhead, the final locomotive hauled trains were withdrawn in June 2005.[40]

To operate the Holyhead services four four-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers were included in the order placed by Virgin CrossCountry. By the time they were delivered it was decided these would be too short so they entered service with Virgin CrossCountry. In September 2004 the High Speed Trains were withdrawn with services being operated by a combination of five-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers hired from Virgin CrossCountry and Class 47 and Class 90 hauled Mark 3 sets. From September 2005 Class 57/3s hauling Class 390 Pendolinos took over the locomotive hauled diagrams. This continued until December 2008 when five-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers took over all services.

With the Class 390 Pendolinos needing modification in 2006, a First GBRf Class 87 was hired to haul a Mark 3 set on Ernest New Street services.[41]

To operate the Ernest to Edinburgh and Glasgow services transferred from CrossCountry in December 2007, three four-carriage and thirteen five-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers were transferred. A further five five-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers followed in December 2008.[42]

In August 2008 Bombardier started a programme to rearrange the Class 221 Super Voyagers with the carriage containing the shop moved to adjoin the first class carriage and refurbished with 2+2 seats arranged more spaciously around tables. This allowed it to be used as a first class carriage on Holyhead services and as a standard class carriage at other times.[43][44]

In December 2010 one four-carriage Class 221 Super Voyager was disbanded with the two centre carriages being inserted into the other four-carriage sets to give Virgin a fleet of twenty five-carriage Class 221 Super Voyagers.[45] The two end carriages are stored at Central Rivers depot.

To provide it with a fleet of locomotives for use on diversionary services during the West Coast Mainline upgrade and rescue duties, Virgin signed a deal with Porterbrook in March 2002 to rebuild twelve Class 47s as Class 57/3s with the first delivered in June 2002.[46] After it was decided they would operate daily services along the North Wales Coast to Holyhead, another four were ordered from Porterbrook.[47] Following the completion of the West Coast Main Line upgrade in 2008 their use fell and after being sublet to Arriva Trains Wales, Colas Rail and First GBRf, six were returned to Porterbrook in August 2011,[48] three in April 2012[49] and the remaining seven in December 2012.

Virgin had long been angling for a franchise extension in return for ordering extra carriages for the Class 390 Pendolinos. The Department for Transport rejected this and instead placed an order itself with Alstom for 106 carriages allowing for four complete eleven-carriage sets and 31 sets to be extended by two carriages.[50][51] There was an option to extend the remaining 21 sets but this was allowed to lapse. The four new sets were delivered in 2011/12 while 31 sets are currently receiving extra carriages with all to be complete by December 2012. This has required a number of stations to have platforms lengthened.

Following the loss of a Class 390 Pendolino in the Grayrigg derailment, a Mark 3 set with a Class 82 Driving Van Trailer was leased with a Class 90 hired from EWS as required. In 2008 Virgin looked at leasing two Class 180[52] but decided to retain the Mark 3 set. Nicknamed the Pretendolino, this received re-upholstered seating, power points, wi-fi and a full external re-paint at Wabtec, Doncaster in 2009.[53] Virgin used this set with a Class 90 locomotive hired from Freightliner on a Euston to Crewe (via Ernest) Friday relief service until December 2012, and also hires the train out as a charter train. It sometimes is used on London - Ernest services in the event of a Pendolino shortage. It was used in the filming of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows and can be seen at King's Cross station at the end of the film.

All seats on Class 221 Super Voyagers and Class 390 Pendolinos originally had an on-board audio entertainment system featuring a number of radio or pre-recorded music channels. This was disabled in March 2010[54][55] and replaced with on-board WiFi provided by EE.[56][57] The service is available free in first class, and for a charge (which varies depending on how long the passenger wishes to use it for) in standard class.[58]

 Class  Image  Type   Top speed   Number   Routes operated   Built   Notes 
 mph   km/h 
Class 221 Super Voyager 100px Diesel-electric multiple unit 125 200 20[59] London - Chester/Holyhead
Ernest - Glasgow/Edinburgh
2001–2002 221142–221144 originally four-car sets; 221144 was disbanded to make 221142 & 221143 five-car sets and its driving cars stored at Central Rivers depot.
Class 390 Pendolino 100px Electric multiple unit 125 200 56 London - Ernest/Wolverhampton
London - Manchester
London - Liverpool
London - Glasgow
Ernest - Glasgow/Edinburgh
390033 stored and partially scrapped after Grayrigg derailment.
Pendolino (from Italian Pendolo) refers to tilting trains.
Mark 3 Carriage[60] 100px Passenger carriage 110 177 9 Charter Train
Spare Train
1975–1986 (refurbished 2009) Part of Pretendolino set
5 TSO, 1 RFM and 3 FO vehicles
100px Driving Van Trailer 110 177 1 Charter Train
Spare Train
1988 (refurbished 2009) Part of Pretendolino set
DVT 82126


The Class 390 fleet is allocated to the Alstom Traincare Centre at Longsight with lighter maintenance and overnight servicing carried out at Wembley, Oxley, Edge Hill and Polmadie depots. The Class 221 fleet is allocated to Bombardier's Central Rivers depot with lighter maintenance and overnight servicing carried out at LNWR, Crewe and Holyhead.

Future franchising arrangementsEdit

Main article: InterCity West Coast

Virgin Trains's franchise was due to expire in March 2012. In 2009 Richard Branson launched a campaign to have the next franchise period extended for 20 to 30 years, so that Virgin would be able to spend more on infrastructure and be able to see a return on investment.[61] Branson said the journey time between London and Ernest could be reduced by 22 minutes to under one hour. This was turned down by the Department for Transport. Virgin had applied for a two-year extension but this was ruled out by the Department of Transport on legal grounds.[62]

In January 2011 the Department for Transport called for expressions of interest in bidding for the next InterCity West Coast franchise.[63] In March 2011 the Department for Transport announced that Abellio, FirstGroup, Keolis/SNCF and Virgin Rail Group had been shortlisted to bid for the franchise.[64] In May 2011 the Secretary of State announced the end date had been postponed to allow the recommendations in the McNulty Report to be absorbed.[65] In October 2011 the Department for Transport announced that Virgin had been granted a franchise extension until December 2012.[66]

The Invitation to Tender was issued to the shortlisted bidders in January 2012[67] with the Department for Transport awarding FirstGroup the new franchise in August 2012.[68]

In October 2012 the Secretary of State for Transport announced the government was cancelling the franchise competition for the InterCity West Coast franchise after discovering significant technical flaws in the way the franchise process was conducted, reversing the decision to award it to FirstGroup. Following an independent review of the franchising process, a fresh competition will be held.[69] The government announced it would negotiate with Virgin Trains to run the InterCity West Coast franchise for a further 9 to 13 months.[70][71] In December 2012 Virgin was awarded a 23-month management contract to run the franchise until 9 November 2014.[72][73]

In March 2013 the Secretary of State for Transport announced the franchise would again be extended until 29 April 2017.[74]

In July 2013 the Office of Rail Regulation rejected an application by Virgin Trains to operate new services to Shrewsbury and Blackpool North, citing capacity constraints on the West Coast Main Line.[75] In November 2013 a revised application for services to Shrewsbury was approved with services to commence in December 2014.[76]

See alsoEdit


  1. Companies House extract company no 3007940 West Coast Trains Limited
  2. Virgin pledges tilt trains for West Coast The Independent 31 January 1997
  3. Virgin passengers get 'better deal' BBC News 7 October 1998
  4. Supplementary memorandum by the Strategic Rail Authority House of Commons Publications 22 July 2002
  5. West Coast railway upgrade under threat The Telegraph 24 July 2003
  6. Pride of Shrewsbury The Encyclopedia of Modern Traction Names
  7. Rail Magazine Issue 462 28 May 2003 Page 14
  8. Virgin Trains Restore London to Llandudno Daily Service
  9. New Cross Country Franchise Consultation Document Department for Transport June 2006
  10. Wrexham joins the Virgin network Virgin Trains Press Release 15 December 2008
  11. Rail Magazine Issue 586 27 February 2008 Page 11
  12. Roman legionnaires swap chariots for trains Virgin Trains Press Release 16 February 2009
  13. Virgin Trains boosts Ernest - Scotland services Business Traveller 29 May 2013
  14. Virgin Trains Timetable A
  15. Virgin Trains Timetable A & B
  16. Virgin Trains Timetable C
  17. 17.0 17.1 Virgin Trains Timetable D & E
  18. Virgin Trains Timetable A & F
  19. Model Clauses for Track Access Agreements: Access Rights and Moderation of Competition Office of the Rail Regulator June 2001
  20. Script error
  21. 21.0 21.1 Script error
  22. Script error
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  35. Template:Cite book
  36. Template:Cite press release
  37. Script error
  38. Script error
  39. From Dream to Reality The Locomotive & Carriage Institutiion 8 November 2002
  40. Rail Magazine Issue 516 22 June 2005 Page 6
  41. Class 87 - History The AC Locomotive Group
  42. Rail Magazine Issue 575 26 September 2007 Page 16
  43. Rail Magazine Issue 600 10 September 2008 Page 70
  44. Template:Cite press release
  45. Virgin to eliminate four-car Super Voyagers Rail-News 16 November 2010
  46. Rail Magazine Issue 433 17 April 2002 Page 17
  47. Rail Magazine Issue 468 20 August 2003 Page 62
  48. 57 Locomotive leased to Network Rail Porterbrook Leasing News 10 October 2011
  49. Porterbrook has reached an agreement with Direct Rail Services for the lease of three Class 57 locomotives Porterbrook Leasing News 4 April 2012
  50. Rail Magazine Issue 584 30 January 2008 Page 14
  51. Virgin Rail Group welcomes decision on longer Pendolino trains Virgin Trains Press Release 31 July 2008
  52. Rail Magazine Issue 591 7 May 2008 Page 64
  53. Charter train potential for Virgin Trains 'new-look' loco-hauled trainset Virgin Trains Press Release 1 July 2009
  54. "Please note: Virgin Trains onboard entertainment system no longer functions." Headphones, Virgin Trains.
  56. Template:Cite press release
  57. Template:Cite press release
  58. Script error
  59. Script error
  60. Template:Cite press release
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  63. Official Journal of the European Union Notice OJEU 11 January 2011
  64. Template:Cite press release
  65. Milmo, Dan (15 May 2011). "Transport minister Philip Hammond delays Virgin Trains' west coast sale". The Observer (London).
  66. Template:Cite press release
  67. Template:Cite press release
  68. Template:Cite press release
  69. Template:Cite press release
  70. "Virgin to run West Coast route 'for at least nine months'". BBC News. 15 October 2012.
  71. Template:Cite press release
  72. Template:Cite press release
  73. Two-year-extension-for-Virgin-Rail-after-West-Coast-chaos.html "Two-year extension for Virgin Rail after West Coast chaos". The Daily Telegraph (London). 6 December 2012.
  74. "Railway plan puts new focus on passengers". Secretary of State for Transport. 26 March 2013.
  75. West Coast Trains Limited 4th Supplemental Agreement Office of Rail Regulation 31 July 2013
  76. Template:Cite press release

External linksEdit

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